February 20, 2003
BLACK HISTORY MONTH: African-American Player and Coaching Pioneers
Feb. 20, 2003
By Mike Douchant
In the aftermath of the 50th anniversary celebration several years ago of Jackie Robinson beginning his major league baseball career, it was easy to forget there was a time when the now 75 percent black National Basketball Association was 100 percent white. It's also easy to forget that Robinson was instrumental in college basketball's "civil rights" movement.
Long before Robinson came on the scene, however, there was Columbia's George Gregory, who became the first African-American to gain college All-American honors in 1930-31. Gregory was the team's second-leading scorer, in an age of low scoring, with a 9.2-point average. But he was proudest of his defense, and a statistic that is no longer kept: "goals against." In 10 games, Gregory held rival centers to only eight baskets. "That's less than one goal a game," he told the New York Times. "I think they should have kept that statistical category. Nowadays, one guy scores 40 points but his man scores 45. So what good is it?
"It's funny, but even though I was the only black playing for Columbia, and there was only one other black playing in the Ivy League -- Baskerville of Harvard -- I really didn't encounter too much trouble from opponents. Oh, I got into a couple of fights. And one time a guy called me 'Nigger,' and a white teammate said, `Next time, you hit him high and I'll hit him low.' And we did, and my teammate, a Polish guy named Remy Tys, said to that other player, 'That's how we take care of nigger callers.'"
Gregory said the worst racial incident he encountered was at Columbia. "After our last game in my junior year, the team voted me captain for the next season. Well, there was a hell of a battle when this came out. Columbia didn't want a black captain, or a Jewish captain, either, I learned. The dean was against it, and the athletic director was against it, and even the coach was against it.
"The coach told me, `Get yourself together, Gregory, or I'll take your scholarship away.' They were worried that if we played a school in the South and met the other captain before the game, the guy would refuse to come out and it would embarrass the school. But the campus was split 50-50 on whether to have a black captain for its basketball team.
"The fight went on for three or four weeks. The school insisted that the team vote again. We did, and I won again. One of my teammates said, `You forced the school to enter the 20th Century.'"
Barksdale Breaks NBA Color Barrier
The first black to appear in the NBA didn't occur until 20 years after Gregory graduated. UCLA's first basketball All-American Don Barksdale, one of the first seven African-Americans to play in the NBA, was the first black U.S. Olympic basketball player (1948) as well as the first black to play in an NBA All-Star Game (1952).
Inspired by the black labor movement in the 1930s, Barksdale said, "I made up my mind that if I wanted to do something, I was going to try to do it all the way, no matter the obstacles."
As a 28-year-old rookie with the Baltimore Bullets, he was paid $20,850 (one of the NBA's top salaries) to play and host a postgame radio show, but that notoriety also put extra pressure on him. Forced to play excessive minutes during the preseason, he sustained ankle injuries that plagued him the remainder of his career.
Why play so many minutes? "It's Baltimore, which is considered the South," Barksdale said. "So the South finally signed a black man, and he's going to play whether he could walk or crawl."
Open Door, Closed Door Policies
UCLA's initial all-conference basketball player in the 1940s had been the multi-talented Robinson, a forward who compiled the highest scoring average in the Pacific Coast Conference both of his seasons with the Bruins (12.3 points per league game in 1939-40 and 11.1 in 1940-41) after transferring from Pasadena (Calif.) City College.
There are ramifications when assessing the issue of race and it would be nice if we were all color blind. Nonetheless, it's impossible to properly evaluate the history of college basketball without broaching the sensitive topic.
The prejudice probably prevented the ACC and SEC from becoming the nation's premier conferences in the 1960s and first half of the 1970s. It almost certainly kept the SWC as a "football only" league. All-Americans, future NBA standouts and prize NCAA playoff performers who attended high school in Southern states and might have enrolled at universities in the ACC, SEC or SWC if not for being deemed second-class citizens included:
Alabama--Artis Gilmore (attended Jacksonville), Bill Green (Colorado State) and Bud Stallworth (Kansas).
Arkansas--Jim Barnes (Texas-El Paso), Frank Burgess (Gonzaga) and Eddie Miles (Seattle).
Florida--Howard Porter (Villanova) and Walt Wesley (Kansas).
Georgia--Walt Frazier (Southern Illinois) and Merv Jackson (Utah).
Kentucky--Butch Beard (Louisville), Ralph Davis (Cincinnati), Clem Haskins (Western Kentucky), Jim McDaniels (Western Kentucky), Tom Thacker (Cincinnati) and Wes Unseld (Louisville).
Louisiana--Elvin Hayes (Houston) and Willis Reed (Grambling).
North Carolina--Walt Bellamy (Indiana), Happy Hairston (NYU), Lou Hudson (Minnesota), Sam Jones (North Carolina Central), Henry Logan (Western Carolina) and Jimmy Walker (Providence).
Tennessee--Larry Finch (Memphis State), Richie Fuqua (Oral Roberts), Les Hunter (Loyola of Chicago), Paul Hogue (Cincinnati), Vic Rouse (Loyola of Chicago) and Bingo Smith (Tulsa).
Texas--Dave Stallworth (Wichita).
Snowden's Success Helps Open Opportunities
It took the ACC, SEC and SWC another 20 years or so to embrace their first African-American head coaches. In 1974-75, Arizona's Fred Snowden became the first African-American coach to have a team finish in a final wire-service Top 20 poll (17th in UPI with a 22-7 record). Two years earlier, Snowden became the first African-American head coach in the Western Athletic Conference.
The next two decades saw the following head coaches break the color barrier in major conferences: Wisconsin's Bill Cofield (Big Ten in 1976-77), Arkansas' Nolan Richardson (SWC in 1985-86), Oklahoma State's Leonard Hamilton (Big Eight in 1986-87), Maryland's Bob Wade (ACC in 1986-87) and Tennessee's Wade Houston (SEC in 1989-90).
In 1982, Georgetown's John Thompson took umbrage to depictions of him as the initial African-American coach to direct a team to the Final Four. But the injustices in the past against his race were sufficient reason for placing emphasis on Thompson's achievements with predominantly black rosters.
Texas Western, now called Texas-El Paso, put the finishing touches on dismantling the prejudiced myth that black athletes couldn't play disciplined basketball by using seven players, all blacks, in winning the 1966 NCAA Tournament final.
"Young black players told me that it (the championship) gave them confidence and courage," said Harry Flournoy, a starter for Texas Western. "Some of them, before that game, had been afraid to go to white schools."
In the first 20 years after the Miners captured their title, the average number of blacks on college rosters increased from three to six. Almost two-thirds of Division I basketball rosters currently are comprised of black players.
Pioneers Faced Hardship, Harrassment, Hate
The integration of college basketball, waiting primarily on the South to emerge from the "Jim Crow" dark ages, wasn't complete until the mid-1970s. Although overt racism probably wasn't quite as pervasive as in professional sports, many of the African-American players who broke the color barriers at colleges post-World War II faced more than their share of hardships and hostility.
"They (opposing fans) were all just rabid," recalls Perry Wallace, Vanderbilt's standout forward who became the first black varsity player in the all-white Southeastern Conference in 1967-68. "I'm talking racial stuff, people threatening your life ... calling you 'nigger,' 'coon,' 'shoe polish.' The first time I played Ole Miss I got spat on at halftime by four generations of one family."
Wallace, a local product from Nashville who went on to become a tenured law professor at the University of Baltimore, encountered raucous road trips through the Deep South, where belligerent spectators drenched him with their drinks and cheerleaders led the crowd in racist chants. In Mississippi, he was punched in the eye by an opposing player whom he knew he couldn't fight back.
Wallace, overshadowed in the SEC by the scoring exploits of LSU All-American Pete Maravich, told the Nashville Business & Lifestyles that "I'm not one of these historical revisionists who tries to claim he was all-smart and all-seeing back in those days. Everybody knew that what was happening was important. You've got to understand that this was post-legal segregation, but it was de facto segregation."
In an interview with The Tennessean, Wallace spoke of also feeling alienated from classmates at Vandy, of being informed by members of the campus church that elders there would withhold contributions if he attended.
"I can't say it any other way," Wallace confided. "I have been there by myself. It's been a very lonesome thing. People knew my name but weren't interested in knowing me. They respected my basketball ability but still considered me as a person who sweeps floors."
In a book The Walls Came Tumbling Down, Wallace said: "There were times when I felt close to a nervous breakdown. They weren't the worst four years any black man ever had experienced, but it took me a while to learn to deal with the pain. The fact that I did is a credit to my parents. They had eighth-grade educations and they worked as servants and what not. But they emphasized education, decency, and morality. I grew up poor but with strong values. My parents wouldn't let me hate back. They used to say, `No matter what is done to you, you don't get the chance to hate back.'"
Slowly Walls Crumble
Henry Harris, an All-SEC third-team selection in 1971-72 and the first black athlete at Auburn, was for a while the only black Wallace played against in the SEC. Harris took his own life by jumping off a building in New York soon after he left college. And Tom Payne, who broke the color barrier at Kentucky a year after Wallace graduated, was imprisoned for an extended period for assaulting females.
"Tom Payne had a tragic life and it wasn't all owing to playing in the SEC, but it didn't help," Wallace asserts. "You have to take the time that it requires to recover from an experience like that. You have to heal right. And fortunately, I think I have. I'm not destroyed. I've wrestled with the emotional effect that experience has had on my life. That was a process that was not easy those first few years, but I did it."
Payne, the son of an Army sergeant, went from pioneer to pariah in the wake of incurring rape convictions in three states (Georgia, Kentucky and California). After growing up in the integrated atmosphere of Army bases, he says that the racism he experienced during his one tumultuous season at UK led him to detest white people and abuse women. Threatening phone calls, broken car windows and eggs smashed on his front door became routine.
"That's the kind of abuse I went through," Payne said. "And people think that's not supposed to affect you? Before I went to college, nothing in my life said I was going to be a criminal. My whole life took a turn going to UK and getting damaged so much. My anger and hatred toward white society came up, and I lashed out."
These problems weren't restricted to major universities. Al Tucker, who went on to become an NBA first-round draft choice after averaging 28.7 points and 12.9 rebounds per game in three seasons for Oklahoma Baptist, played one year at the College of Knoxville before going home to Ohio because of racial issues. Said Tucker about the last straw that sent him home: "We had what they called the Tennessee Theatre and we would give the lady a dollar or whatever it cost to get in and she said 'Sorry, we don't allow Negroes in.' Next thing they're going to call the paddy wagon and take us to jail."
The bigotry of the South fades every day, but Arizona State coach Rob Evans thinks the lessons in perseverance shouldn't be forgotten. Every year when Evans was coach at Mississippi, he took his players to the Civil Rights Museum in Memphis.
"I just think it's important to expand kids' knowledge, but I also wanted my kids exposed to what happened in the '60s, and why things are like they are now," Evans said. "I've had a tremendous amount of my white kids say, 'Coach, did this really happen?' They say, 'How did you take this?' I think it bonds the kids together."
To be sure, things have changed drastically in society for minority groups. Gregory, Robinson and Wallace could only do so much in venturing into unchartered territory. The following list of trailblazers who broke the color barrier at schools since the start of the 1950s, the generally accepted introduction of the modern era of college basketball, deserve tribute for paving the path for thousands of black athletes by taking giant steps toward bridging the racial chasm:
School - First Black Player (First Varsity Season)
Air Force - Jimmy Love (1960-61)
Statistics are unavailable.
Alabama - Wendell Hudson (1970-71)
Averaged 19.2 ppg and 12 rpg in his career, finishing as Bama's fourth-leading scorer and second-leading rebounder. The two-time first-team All-SEC selection was a Helms All-American choice as a senior in 1972-73.
American - Dick Wells (1956-57 when school was a small college)
The second-leading rebounder in school history behind former All-American Kermit Washington.
Arizona - Hadie Redd (1953-54)
Led the Wildcats in scoring (13.2 ppg and 13.6) and rebounding (7 rpg and 9.4) in both of his varsity seasons.
Arizona State - John Burton/Carl Miller (1953-54)
Burton averaged 7.1 ppg in three seasons. Miller averaged 4.4 ppg in his lone season while playing on the varsity as a freshman.
Arkansas - Thomas Johnson (1968-69)
Averaged 15.5 ppg for 1967-68 freshman squad.
Arkansas State - Milton Sullivan (1966-67 when school was a small college)
Averaged 12.5 ppg and 7.8 rpg as a 6-4 freshman forward.
Army - Unavailable
Auburn - Henry Harris (1969-70)
Averaged 11.8 ppg, 6.7 rpg and 2.5 apg in three-year varsity career. Standout defensive player was captain of Auburn's team as a senior.
Austin Peay State - L.M. Ellis (1963-64)
Ball State - Stan Davis (1951-52 when school was a small college)
All-Indiana Collegiate Conference choice as a senior when he averaged a team-high 18.5 ppg.
Baylor - Tommy Bowman (1967-68)
Led the Bears in scoring (13.5 ppg) and rebounding (9.4 rpg) in his first varsity season. All-Southwest Conference selection in '67-68 and '68-69.
Boston College - John Austin (1963-64)
Two-time All-American averaged 27 points per game in his Eagles' career. Ranked among the nation's leading scorers in 1964 (8th), 1965 (7th) and 1966 (22nd). Scored 40 points in one NIT contest in 1965.
Bowling Green - Chrystal "Boo" Ellis (1951-52)
Averaged 7.3 ppg in two varsity seasons.
Bradley - Curly Johnson/Shellie McMillon (1955-56)
Members of 1957 NIT champion. Johnson averaged 4.8 ppg in three varsity seasons. McMillon averaged 14.1 ppg and 9.3 rpg in three varsity seasons, including a team-high 16.4 ppg in 1956-57. McMillon, who scored 42 points vs. Detroit, was an All-Missouri Valley Conference choice as a senior.
Brigham Young - *Gary Batiste (1974-75)
Statistics are unavailable.
Bucknell - Harvey Carter (1970-71)
Led the Bison in scoring and rebounding all three varsity seasons (14.1 ppg and 11.5 rpg as a sophomore, 14.8 ppg and 12.4 rpg as a junior and 14.2 ppg and 9.8 rpg as a senior).
Butler - Henry Foster (1954-55)
Scored 316 points in three seasons despite not having played basketball in high school. Led the Bulldogs in rebounding in 1955-56.
Centenary - *Jesse Marshall (1968-69)
Led the Gents in scoring (16 ppg) and rebounding (9.6 rpg) as a senior after being their second-leading scorer (15.9 ppg) and leading rebounder (10.2 rpg) as a junior.
Central Michigan - Charles Pruitt (1952-53 when school was a small college)
Averaged 6.3 ppg in two seasons.
The Citadel - *Oscar Scott (1971-72)
Three-year service veteran averaged 11.8 ppg and 7 rpg in two seasons. He led the Bulldogs in rebounding as a senior.
Clemson - Craig Mobley (1970-71)
Played sparingly in his only season (five points in 11 games).
Colorado - Billy Lewis (1957-58)
Averaged 3.6 ppg and 2.9 rpg in three seasons.
Colorado State - Waymon Anderson (1955-56)
Forward-center played sparingly in his two varsity seasons.
Cornell - Henry Buncom (1952-53)
Scored 209 points in three seasons. He was the team's second-leading rebounder as a sophomore.
Creighton - Bob Gibson (1954-55)
Future Baseball Hall of Famer was the school's first player to average at least 20 points per game in his career (20.2).
Dartmouth - Dick Fairley (1952-53)
Averaged 5.7 ppg in three seasons. Led the team in rebounding as a junior (8.7 rpg).
Davidson - Mike Maloy (1967-68)
Three-time All-American averaged 19.3 ppg and 12.4 rpg in his career. Southern Conference Player of the Year as a junior and senior. He was the leading scorer (24.6 ppg) and rebounder (14.3 rpg) for the winningest team in school history (27-3 in 1968-69).
Delaware - Charley Parnell (1966-67)
First-team All-East Coast Conference choice led the Blue Hens in scoring with 18.5 ppg.
Drake - Johnny Bright (1949-50)
All-America football halfback and future member of the Canadian Football League Hall of Fame scored 35 points in 17 games for the Bulldogs' basketball team.
Duke - C.B. Claiborne (1966-67)
Averaged 4.1 ppg in three varsity seasons.
East Carolina - *Vince Colbert (1966-67)
Averaged 14.3 ppg and 7.3 rpg in two seasons. He led the team in rebounding as a junior (7.1 rpg).
Eastern Kentucky - Garfield Smith (1965-66)
Averaged 14.5 ppg and 13.2 rpg in three seasons. He was an All-Ohio Valley Conference choice as a senior when he finished second in the nation in rebounding (19.7 rpg).
East Tenn. State - Tommy Woods (1964-65)
Two-time All-Ohio Valley Conference choice averaged 15.3 ppg and 16.2 rpg in three seasons. He grabbed 38 rebounds in a game vs. Middle Tennessee en route to finishing third in the nation in rebounding as a sophomore (19.6 rpg).
Evansville - Jim Smallins (1954-55 when school was a small college)
Averaged 10.3 ppg in three varsity seasons. Smallins had a school-record 31 rebounds in a game vs. Kentucky Wesleyan as a senior, when he averaged 16.3 ppg.
Florida - Malcolm Meeks/Steve Williams (1971-72)
Meeks played sparingly in two seasons. Williams, who averaged 8 ppg and 5.2 rpg in three varsity seasons, was the Gators' second-leading scorer as a sophomore (12.8 ppg).
Florida State - John Burt/*Willie Williams/Skip Young (1968-69)
Burt averaged 3.6 ppg and 2.4 rpg in three seasons. Williams averaged 12.5 ppg and 10.3 rpg in two seasons and led the nation in field-goal shooting as a senior (63.6%). Young averaged 11.7 ppg in three seasons, including 15 ppg as a sophomore.
Furman - *Liscio Thomas (1969-70)
Averaged 17 ppg and 9.9 rpg in two seasons. He led the Paladins in scoring as a junior (17.7 ppg) and was the second-leading scorer and rebounder for the 1971 Southern Conference champion.
George Mason - Paul Nance (1966-67 when school was a small college)
Played in 10 of 18 games in GMU's first season of intercollegiate basketball, averaging three points per contest.
Georgetown - Unavailable
George Washington - Garland Pinkston (1967-68)
Second-leading scorer (12.5 ppg) and rebounder (7.3 rpg) in his only varsity season for GWU.
Georgia - Ronnie Hogue (1970-71)
Finished three-year varsity career as the second-leading scorer in school history (17.8 ppg). He was an All-SEC choice with 20.5 ppg as a junior, when he set the school single-game scoring record with 46 points vs. LSU.
Georgia Tech - *Karl Binns (1971-72)
He was the leading rebounder (6.5 rpg) and fourth-leading scorer (8.8 ppg) in his only season with the Yellow Jackets.
Gonzaga - Blake Elliott (1956-57)
Air Force veteran averaged 6 ppg and 5.7 rpg in four seasons. He was the school's third-leading scorer as a senior in 1959-60 with 8.5 ppg.
Houston - Don Chaney/Elvin Hayes (1965-66)
Chaney, an All-America as a senior, averaged 12.6 ppg in three seasons and was a member of Final Four teams in 1967 and 1968. Hayes, a three-time All-America, averaged 31 ppg and 17.2 rpg in three seasons. The Hall of Famer led the Cougars in scoring and rebounding all three years.
Idaho - *John Sullivan (1954-55)
Saw limited action in two seasons after joining team following football season. His free throw with seven seconds remaining gave the Vandals an 80-79 victory over Washington in 1954-55.
Idaho State - Jake LaRue (1946-47 or 1947-48 when school was a small college)
Illinois - Walt Moore (1951-52)
Scored five points while playing in only four games.
Iowa State - John Crawford (1955-56)
Averaged 13.4 ppg and 9.7 rpg in three seasons. He led the Cyclones in rebounding all three years and paced them in scoring as a senior (14.1 ppg).
Jacksonville - Chip Dublin (1967-68)
Averaged 7.1 ppg in three seasons, including an 8.3 mark for the Dolphins' team that reached the 1970 Final Four. He scored 19 points in a 106-100 victory over top-ranked Kentucky in the 1970 NCAA Tournament.
Kansas - LaVannes Squires (1951-52)
Totaled 32 points and 17 rebounds in 33 games in three seasons. Member of Final Four teams with the Jayhawks in 1952 and 1953.
Kansas State - Gene Wilson (1951-52)
Averaged 5 ppg in three seasons of a career interrupted by military service (missed 1952-53 and 1953-54).
Kentucky - Tom Payne (1970-71)
Led the Wildcats in rebounding (10.1 rpg) and was their second-leading scorer (16.9 ppg) in his only varsity season before turning pro. The All-SEC first-team selection had a 39-point, 19-rebound performance vs. Louisiana State.
Lafayette - Earl Brown (1971-72)
Had 21-rebound game vs. Lehigh as a sophomore before averaging 11 ppg and 10.6 rpg as a junior and 13.7 ppg and 12.1 rpg as a senior.
La Salle - Jackie Moore (1951-52)
Averaged 10.3 ppg and 12.1 rpg in two seasons. Second-leading rebounder both years for the Explorers behind All-America Tom Gola.
Lehigh - Gene Brown/Harold Lambert (1972-73)
Brown averaged 2.5 ppg in two varsity seasons. Lambert averaged 4.6 ppg and 5.1 rpg in two varsity seasons and was captain of the team in 1973-74.
La.-Lafayette - Leslie Scott (1966-67 when school was a small college)
Averaged 6.1 ppg in his only varsity season with USL.
Louisiana-Monroe - Henry Steele (1968-69 when school was a small college)
Averaged 19.9 ppg and 12 rpg and shot 52.2% from the floor in four seasons. Had 11 games with 30 or more points en route to leading the Indians in scoring his last three years. Scored a career-high 40 points against Louisiana College as a junior.
Louisiana State - Collis Temple (1971-72)
Averaged 10.1 ppg and 8.1 rpg in three seasons. Ranked second in the SEC in rebounding (11.1 rpg) and seventh in field-goal shooting (54.9%) as a senior. His son, Collis III, scored a career-high 30 points for LSU in a loss at Tennessee to end the 2000-01 regular season.
Louisville - Wade Houston/Sam Smith/Eddie Whitehead (1963-64)
Houston averaged 6.1 ppg and 3.5 rpg in three seasons. Smith averaged 9.2 ppg and team-high 11 rpg in his only varsity season with the Cardinals before transferring to Kentucky Wesleyan. Whitehead, Louisville's second-leading rebounder as a senior (7.6 rpg), averaged 5.8 ppg and 5.2 rpg in three seasons.
Loyola Marymount - Robert Cox (1953-54)
Averaged 16.9 ppg and 11.1 rpg in two seasons while leading the Lions in both categories each year.
Marquette - Ralph Wilson (1951-52)
Averaged 5.7 ppg in three seasons.
Marshall - Hal Greer (1955-56)
Averaged 19.4 ppg and 10.8 rpg in three seasons. Hall of Famer led the Thundering Herd in rebounding as a junior (13.8 rpg) and senior (11.7 rpg).
Maryland - Billy Jones (1965-66)
Averaged 8.9 ppg and 4.5 rpg in three seasons. He was the Terrapins' third-leading scorer and rebounder as both a junior and senior.
McNeese State - Willie Lee/Joe Metoyer (1967-68 when school was a small college)
Memphis - Herb Hilliard (1966-67)
Averaged 2.5 ppg and 3.7 rpg in three seasons. He was the Tigers' second-leading rebounder as a junior (5.2 rpg).
Miami (Fla.) - Willie Allen (1968-69)
Averaged 17.2 ppg and 12.2 rpg in three seasons. Led the Hurricanes in scoring (19.9 ppg) and rebounding (17.2 rpg) as a senior.
Michigan - John Codwell/Don Eaddy (1951-52)
Codwell, the Wolverines' second-leading scorer as a junior (10.5 ppg), averaged 6.4 ppg in three seasons. Eaddy, Michigan's top scorer in Big Ten competition as a sophomore (13.8 ppg), averaged 11.4 ppg in four seasons.
Michigan State - Rickey Ayala (1951-52)
One of the smallest players in college history (5-5) averaged 4 ppg in 1951-52 and 5 ppg in 1952-53.
Middle Tenn. State - Willie Brown/Art Polk (1966-67)
Brown, an All-Ohio Valley Conference choice as junior and senior, averaged 20.3 ppg and 7.4 rpg in three seasons en route to finishing his career as the school's all-time scoring leader (1,524 points). Polk, MTSU's second-leading rebounder as a junior and senior, averaged 12.3 ppg and 9.2 rpg in three seasons.
Minnesota - Bobby Bell (1960-61)
Future All-American football tackle and Pro Football Hall of Famer collected four points and four rebounds in three games.
Mississippi - Coolidge Ball (1971-72)
Two-time All-SEC selection (sophomore and junior years) averaged 14.1 ppg and 9.9 rpg in three seasons. He led the Rebels in scoring (16.8 ppg) and was second in rebounding (10.3 rpg) as a sophomore.
Mississippi State - Larry Fry/Jerry Jenkins (1972-73)
Fry averaged 13.8 ppg and 8.1 rpg in three seasons. Jenkins, an All-SEC selection as a junior and senior when he was the Bulldogs' leading scorer each year, averaged 19.3 ppg and 7 rpg in three seasons.
Missouri - Al Abram (1956-57)
Averaged 11 ppg over four seasons. He led the Tigers in scoring (16.1 ppg), rebounding (8.9 rpg) and field-goal shooting (45%) in 1958-59.
Montana State - Larry Chanay (1956-57)
Four-year Air Force veteran finished his four-year college career as the school's all-time leading scorer (2,034 points). He led the Bobcats in scoring all four seasons.
Murray State - Stew Johnson (1963-64)
Averaged 16.8 ppg and 12.9 rpg in three seasons on his way to finishing his career as the school's all-time fourth-leading scorer (1,275 points) and second-leading rebounder (981).
Navy - Unavailable
New Hampshire - Nick Johnson/John Jones (1951-52)
Both only played one season with the Wildcats.
New Mexico - Dean Dorsey/*Fred Sims (1958-59)
Dorsey was the Lobos' second-leading scorer (9.6 ppg) in his only season. Sims was UNM's top rebounder (9.5 rpg) and third-leading scorer (8.3 ppg) in his only season.
New Mexico State - Joe Kelly (1956-57)
Averaged 7 ppg in three seasons, including 9.2 as a senior in 1958-59.
Niagara - Ed Fleming/Charlie Hoxie (1951-52)
Fleming averaged 15 ppg and 8.7 rpg in four seasons to finish No. 1 on the school's all-time scoring (1,682) and rebounding (975) lists. Hoxie averaged 11.7 ppg and 8.4 rpg in four seasons to finish his career as the school's third-leading scorer (1,274) and second-leading rebounder (916).
North Carolina - Charlie Scott (1967-68)
Averaged 22.1 ppg and 7.1 rpg in three seasons. He was a consensus second-team All-American choice in his last two years.
N.C. State - Al Heartley (1968-69)
Averaged 4.8 ppg in three seasons.
North Texas - John Savage (1961-62)
Detroit product averaged 19.2 ppg in leading the Eagles in scoring all three of his varsity seasons with them.
Northwestern - Fred DuHart (1954-55)
Averaged 2.4 ppg in three seasons.
Northwestern State - Thurman Baptiste (1969-70 when school was a small college)
Notre Dame - Joe Bertrand/Entee Shine (1951-52)
Bertrand averaged 14.6 ppg in three seasons, including 16.5 as a senior when the Irish finished the year ranked sixth in the final AP poll. Shine averaged 6.3 ppg in 13 games in his only season.
Ohio University - Bunk Adams (1958-59)
Averaged 16.4 ppg and 11.8 rpg in three seasons, including a team-high 12.8 rpg as a senior. He led the team in scoring as a sophomore (14.4 ppg) and junior (16.4) and was second as a senior (18.2) en route to finishing as OU's career leader in points (1,196). All-MAC first team as a junior and senior after earning second-team status as a sophomore.
Ohio State - Cleo Vaughn (1953-54)
Averaged 3.6 ppg in his only varsity season with the Buckeyes.
Oklahoma - Buddy Hudson/Joe Lee Thompson (1958-59)
Hudson, a transfer from Oklahoma Baptist, averaged 5.1 ppg and 3 rpg in two seasons. Thompson averaged 2.5 ppg in three varsity seasons.
Oklahoma City - Eddie Jackson (1962-63)
Center averaged 12.3 ppg and 10 rpg in three-year OCU career after transferring from Oklahoma. He led the Chiefs in rebounding as a sophomore and junior. Eventually became a prominent bank president and lawyer in Oklahoma City. The seven-footer is an outstanding tennis player.
Oklahoma State - L.C. Gordon (1958-59)
Averaged 2.4 ppg and 2.3 rpg in three seasons.
Old Dominion - Arthur "Buttons" Speakes (1965-66 when school was a small college)
Two-sport star earned MVP honors in basketball his sophomore season and went on to bat .364 in baseball as a third baseman that spring.
Oregon State - *Charlie White (1964-65)
Led the Beavers in rebounding (7 rpg) and was their second-leading scorer (9.6 ppg) as a junior. The next year as first five pick on the All-Pac-8 team, he was OSU's second-leading scorer (11.7 ppg) and rebounder (6.6 rpg) and led the team in field-goal shooting (49.4%) and free-throw shooting (81.4%).
Pacific - John Thomas (1954-55)
Averaged 15.1 ppg and 11.3 rpg in three seasons while leading the team in scoring and rebounding all three years. Finished career as the school's all-time scoring leader (1,178 points). He set Pacific single-season records for points (480) and rebounds (326) in 1955-56.
Penn - Unavailable
Pepperdine - Larry Dugan (1952-53)
Averaged 13.5 ppg in three seasons, leading the team in scoring as both a junior (15.4 ppg) and senior (17.4 ppg). He was a third-team NAIA All-America choice in 1954-55.
Pittsburgh - Julius Pegues (1955-56)
Averaged 13.6 ppg in three seasons, finishing as the school's second-leading scorer (17.6 ppg) as a senior behind All-America Don Hennon. Pegues scored a game-high 31 points in an 82-77 loss to Miami of Ohio in the 1958 NCAA Tournament.
Providence - Lionel Jenkins (1955-56)
Averaged 4.8 ppg in three seasons. His best year was as a sophomore when he averaged 7.8 ppg.
Purdue - *Ernie Hall (1951-52)
Averaged 12.4 ppg in nine games before he was dropped from the team after his arrest on an assault and battery charge, which he was acquitted of later. Eventually, Hall graduated from Cal Poly-SLO.
Rhode Island - Bernard "Slick" Pina (1953-54)
Averaged 9 ppg in his only varsity season.
Rice - Leroy Marion (1969-70)
Averaged 5.6 ppg and 3.3 rpg in a three-year varsity career marred by a knee injury.
Richmond - Carlton Mack (1971-72)
Averaged 4.4 ppg in three varsity seasons.
St. Bonaventure - Unavailable
St. Francis (Pa.) - Eugene Phelps (1949-50 when school was small college)
St. John's - Solly Walker (1951-52)
Averaged 7.8 ppg and 6.8 rpg in three seasons. Member of 1952 NCAA runner-up and 1953 NIT runner-up. Led the team in scoring (14 ppg) and rebounding (12.2 rpg) as a senior.
St. Joseph's - John Tiller (1961-62)
Averaged 2.6 ppg and 3.3 rpg in three seasons.
St. Louis - Larry Sykes (1952-53)
Transfer who previously attended Morgan State and LIU collected 14 points and four rebounds in 12 games in his only season.
St. Mary's - LaRoy Doss (1956-57)
Averaged 14.8 ppg and 9.2 rpg in three seasons, leading the squad in rebounding as a sophomore and in scoring as a junior and senior. Second-team All-WCAC as a sophomore and junior and first five pick as a senior. Finished third on the school's career scoring list with 1,139 points.
San Francisco - K.C. Jones/Carl Lawson (1951-52)
Jones, a member of the 1955 NCAA champion and 1956 Olympic champion, averaged 8.8 ppg in five seasons (played only one game in 1953-54 before undergoing an appendectomy). Lawson averaged 2.4 ppg in three seasons.
Santa Clara - Leroy Jackson (1960-61)
Averaged 10.1 ppg and 8.3 rpg in three seasons, leading the team in rebounding all three years. Named to second five on All-WCAC team as a senior when he averaged 11.9 ppg and 10.9 rpg.
Seton Hall - Walter Dukes (1950-51)
Averaged 19.9 ppg and 18.9 rpg in three seasons. Consensus first-team All-America as a senior when he averaged 26.1 ppg and 22.2 rpg to lead the Dukes to a 31-2 record and NIT title.
South Alabama - *Cliff McKay/*Eugene Oliver/*Darius Segure/*Leon Williams (1972-73)
Oliver averaged 17.9 ppg and 5.1 rpg in two seasons, leading the team in scoring both years and setting a school single-game record with 46 points vs. Southern Mississippi. McKay, Segure and Williams were also J.C. recruits.
South Carolina - Casey Manning (1970-71)
Averaged 2.6 ppg and 1.8 rpg in three seasons.
Southern California - Unavailable
Southern Illinois - Harvey Welch (1951-52 when school was a small college)
Averaged 11 ppg and 6.5 rpg in three seasons, including a team-high 12.3 ppg as a senior.
Southern Methodist - *Ruben Triplett (1971-72)
Averaged 14.9 ppg and 9 rpg in two seasons. Named All-SWC as a junior when he led the Mustangs in scoring (18.2 ppg) and rebounding (10.8 rpg).
Southern Miss. - Wilbert Jordan (1969-70)
Averaged 4 ppg and 2.8 rpg in three varsity seasons.
Stanford - *Ed Tucker (1951-52)
Averaged 15.8 ppg in two seasons, leading the team in scoring both years. Led the PCC Southern Division in scoring in his first varsity season when he was an all-league pick.
Syracuse - Manny Breland (1953-54) or Wilmeth Sidet-Singh (1936-37)
Temple - Unavailable
Tennessee - *Larry Robinson (1971-72)
Averaged 10.9 ppg and 8.8 rpg in two seasons. Led the Volunteers in rebounding and field-goal shooting both years.
Tennessee Tech - Marv Beidleman/Joe Hilson/Henry Jordan (1965-66)
Beidleman scored 27 points in 12 games in his only varsity season. Hilson, the team's second-leading scorer in 1966-67 (17 ppg), averaged 13.9 ppg and 3.7 rpg in two seasons. Jordan, an All-OVC team selection, averaged 16.1 ppg and 13.1 rpg (ranking 25th in the nation) in his only season.
Texas - Sam Bradley (1968-69)
Averaged 6.5 ppg in his only varsity season.
Texas A&M - *Mario Brown (1971-72)
Averaged 13 ppg and 4.3 apg in two seasons, leading the team in assists both years.
Texas Christian - James Cash (1966-67)
Averaged 13.9 ppg and 11.6 rpg in three seasons. All-SWC selection as a senior when he led the Horned Frogs in scoring (16.3 ppg) and rebounding (11.6 rpg). Cash had six games with at least 20 rebounds.
Texas-El Paso - *Charlie Brown/*Cecil Brown (1956-57)
Charlie Brown, a three-time All-Border Conference choice, led the league in scoring as a sophomore (23.4 ppg). He averaged 17.5 ppg in three varsity seasons, leading the Miners in scoring each year. Cecil was a backup player.
Texas Tech - *Gene Knolle/*Greg Lowery (1969-70)
Knolle, a two-time All-SWC selection, averaged 21.5 ppg and 8.4 rpg in two seasons. Lowery, who averaged 19.7 ppg in his three-year career, was first-team All-SWC as a sophomore and senior and a second-team choice as a junior en route to finishing as the school's career scoring leader (1,476 points).
Tulane - Harold Sylvester (1968-69)
Averaged 12.5 ppg and 9.1 rpg in three varsity seasons. He led the Green Wave in rebounding as a sophomore and was its second-leading rebounder and scorer as a junior and senior.
Tulsa - *Herman Callands/*Sherman Dillard/*Julian Hammond (1964-65)
Callands, Tulsa's leading rebounder as a junior (11.2 rpg), averaged 7.9 ppg and 8.8 rpg in two seasons. Dillard, the team's second-leading scorer as a senior (15.4), averaged 10.6 ppg and 5.1 rpg in two years. Hammond, who averaged 12.2 ppg and 7.6 rpg in two seasons, led Tulsa in scoring (16.4 ppg) and rebounding (7.6 rpg) as a senior when he was an All-MVC choice and paced the nation in field-goal shooting (65.9%).
UNLV - Silas Stepp (1962-63 when school was a small college)
Averaged 18.3 ppg and 10.8 rpg in four seasons. He led the team in scoring all four years and was its top rebounder his last three seasons.
Utah - *Jim Thomas (1957-58)
Averaged 2.7 ppg and 2.7 rpg in three seasons.
Utah State - Sam Haggerty/Hal Theus (1956-57)
Haggerty averaged 3.6 ppg in two seasons. Theus, the team's leading rebounder as a junior, averaged 14.4 ppg and 10.7 rpg in three seasons.
Vanderbilt - Perry Wallace (1967-68)
Averaged 12.9 ppg and 11.5 rpg in three varsity seasons. He was the Commodores' leading rebounder as a junior (10.2 rpg) and leading scorer as a senior (13.4 ppg).
Villanova - Kenneth Harrison (1956-57)
Averaged 6.2 ppg and 4.4 rpg in three varsity seasons. His best season was as a sophomore when he averaged 8 ppg and 5.8 rpg.
Virginia - Al Drummond (1971-72)
Averaged 5.2 ppg in three varsity seasons.
Virginia Military - Charlie Tyler (1971-72)
Averaged 9 ppg and 6.8 rpg in three varsity seasons. He led VMI in scoring as a sophomore (12.6 ppg) and in rebounding as a junior (6.8 rpg) and senior (6.6 rpg).
Virginia Tech - Charlie Lipscomb (1969-70)
Averaged 11.4 ppg and 9.4 rpg in three varsity seasons. He led the team in rebounding (10.4 rpg) and was its second-leading scorer (12.1 ppg) as a sophomore.
Wake Forest - Norwood Todmann (1967-68)
Averaged 10.5 ppg and 4.1 rpg in three seasons, including 13.3 ppg as a sophomore.
Washington - Unavailable
Washington State - Howard Allen McCants (1952-53)
The 6-8, 235-pound multi-sport athlete averaged 3.9 ppg and 6.1 rpg in two seasons. He was the PCC high jump outdoor champion in 1953.
Western Carolina - Henry Logan (1964-65 when school was a small college)
Guard became school's all-time leading scorer (3,290 points) by increasing his scoring average each season from 26.7 ppg as a freshman to 36.2 ppg as a senior.
Western Kentucky - Clem Haskins/Dwight Smith (1964-65)
Haskins, a three-time OVC Player of the Year who was a consensus first-team All-America as a senior, averaged 22.1 ppg and 10.6 rpg in three varsity seasons. Smith, a three-time all-conference choice who averaged 14.6 ppg and 10.9 rpg in his college career, led the Hilltoppers in rebounding as a sophomore (11.3 rpg) and as a senior (11.9 rpg).
West Virginia - Ed Harvard/*Carl Head/Norman Holmes/Ron "Fritz" Williams (1965-66)
Harvard (1.3 ppg) and Holmes (2.7 ppg) played sparingly while Head averaged 13.9 ppg in 1965-66. Head, who averaged 17.1 ppg and 7.9 rpg in two seasons, paced the team in field-goal shooting as a junior (53.5%) and in scoring as a senior (20.5 ppg). Williams, the Southern Conference's player of the year as a senior, led the Mountaineers in scoring and assists all three varsity seasons on his way to finishing with averages of 20.1 ppg and 6 apg.
Wichita State - Cleo Littleton (1951-52)
Averaged 19 ppg and 7.7 rpg in four seasons, leading the Shockers in scoring each year. School's career scoring leader (2,164 points) is the only four-time first-team All-Missouri Valley Conference choice.
William & Mary - Ron Satterthwaite (1973-74)
Averaged 13.2 ppg in four seasons. He led the Tribe in scoring as a sophomore and junior, averaging 16.9 ppg each year. Named to All-Southern Conference team as a sophomore.
Wisconsin - Ivan Jefferson (1958-59)
Averaged 6.3 ppg and 3.6 rpg in his only varsity season with the Badgers before transferring to Southern Illinois.
Wyoming - *Curt Jimerson (1960-61)
Averaged 14.6 ppg in two seasons, including a team-high 17.5 ppg as a senior.
Xavier - Ray Tomlin (1954-55)
Scored 66 points in 41 varsity games in three seasons.
*Junior college recruit.
NOTES: Bright (Missouri Valley), Cash (SWC), Iowa's Dick Culberson (Big Ten in 1944-45), Jones (ACC) and Wallace (SEC) were the first African-American varsity players to compete in their high profile conferences. . . . Transfer Andre Polly practiced with the William & Mary varsity in 1971-72, but the accomplished musician transferred again to a better music school. . . . USL's Leslie Scott sat out one season after transferring from Loyola of Chicago. . . . Stephen Pitters was a member of Centenary's freshman squad in 1967-68, but wasn't on the varsity team the next season. . . . William Cooper played on North Carolina's freshman team in 1964-65, but quit basketball the following year.